The National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22nd, 1947, and presented to the nation at the midnight session of the Assembly on 14th August, 1947, on behalf of the women of India. The flag was unfurled on Parliament House.
Background : The tricolor flag was first born in the All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting at Bezwada in 1912, when a flag was shown by an Andhra youth and improved by Mahatma Gandhi with the addition of a white band and Chakra
Dimension : The ratio of the width (proportion) of the flag to its length is 2:3. All the three bands are of equal width with deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.
Wheel : In the center of the white band is a wheel in navy blue color. The design of the wheel is that of the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capitol. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.
Saffron : Signifies courage and sacrifice
White : Signifies truth and peace
Green : Signifies faith and chivalry
The wheel symbolizes India’s ancient culture, dynamism and peaceful change, and is adopted from the Dharma Chakra of Emperor Ashoka
Even an unusable National Flag cannot be destroyed. There is a code as to how to put aside the unusable National Flag prescribed by the government.
The National Emblem and Seal of the Government of India is a replica of the Capitol of Ashoka’s Pillar at Sarnath. In the original capitol of the stone pilla, four lions are carved outstanding back to back. In the emblem, however, only three lions are visible as it appears in print, the fourth one remains hidden from the view.
The capitol is mounted on an abacus (base plate). There is a Dharma Chakra in the centre of the base plate, on the right of which is a figure of a bull and on the left that of a horse. There is an inscription in Devanagari script, a quotation from the Mundak Upanishad below the base plate which reads ‘Satya Meva Jayate’ which means ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’.
Composer : Rabindranath Tagore in 1911
First Sung : 27 Dec, 1911, during the Indian National Congress Session at Calcutta
When Adopted : 24 Jan, 1950, by the Constituent Assembly of India
English Translation : Rendered by Tagore himself in 1919, under the title ‘Morning Song of India’
Playing Time : About 52 seconds for the full version.
Background : It was originally composed in Bengali language and first published in January 1912, under the title
‘Bharat Vidhata’ in Tatva-Bodhini Patrika edited by Tagore himself. The complete song consists of 5 stanzas. However, the first stanza has been adopted by the defence forces of India to be Sung on all ceremonial occasions and it constitutes the full version of the National Anthem.
Composer : Bankimchandra Chatterjee
First Sung : 1896 sessions of Indian National Congress
When Adopted : 24 January 1950, along with the National Anthem
English Translation : Rendered by Sri Aurobindo
Background : Both the National Song and the National Anthem were adopted together and have equal status. It has been taken from Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s novel Ananda Math published in 1882. It has been a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom.
NATIONAL CALENDAR (SAKA)
At the time of Independence, the Government of India followed the Gregorian calendar based on Christian era. From 22 March 1957, (Saka 1879) a unified Indian National Calendar to be used for official purposes was introduced based on the Saka era which began with vernal equinox of AD 78.
Chaitra is the first month and Phalguna is the last month of the Saka year. The normal Saka year has 365 days and the dates of the Saka year have permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian calendar, Chaitra 1 falls on 22 March in a normal year and on 21 March in a leap year.
Use of National Calendar: Is used for the following official purposes of the Govt of India:
It is issued by Government of India
The Changing Face
Money is not an organic creature but its value keeps changing with the society and its economic conditions. One rupee in 1947 is not the same as one rupee today, both in terms of appearance and purchasing power. The value of a country's currency is linked with its economic conditions and policies.
What does Devaluation mean?
The Current Situation:
The rupee has lost nearly 3% of its value since the start of 2018, and it is the second-biggest loser in the BRICS group: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The Russian ruble is the only currency that has lost more value than the rupee in 2018 so far.
The reasons behind the depreciation of the Indian rupee:
Increase in the price of the crude oil:
Beginning of trade war between the USA and China:
Increasing Trade Deficit of India:
Out flow of Foreign Currency:
About Section 377:
Introduced during the British rule in the year 1862 the Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code criminalizes sexual activities “against the order of the nature” (Homosexuality). Considered as an archaic and regressive legislation, activist and members of the LGBT community have been fighting to strike down this anti-homosexuality legislation in courts ever since 2001.
The Supreme court in its 2013 verdict had upholded the section 377 criminalizing homosexuality.
The Section struck down:
A 5 member bench set up in 2017 by the Supreme Court to hear Petitions. The Five member bench led by Chief Justice Dipak Misra commenced hearing on 10th July 2018 and stuck down the Section 377 in a Historic Verdict on 6th September 2018.
(LGBT stands for Lesbians, Gays, Bi-sexuals and Transgenders)
The Legal Journey so Far:
Source: The Hindu
The Pride Movements:
Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Designed by gay artist Gilbert Baker in 1978, LGBT pride's rainbow flag initially had eight colours. However, it reduced to six colours by removing the pink and turquoise and replacing indigo with basic blue. In the current flag, red represents life, orange represents healing, yellow stands for sunlight, green represents nature, blue represents art and violet stands for human spirit.
Part 5: Union (Article 52-151)
* The Veto Power has been exercised only twice by Dr Rajendra Prasad
Council of Ministers
Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
Lok Sabha (People’s House)
Facts About the Speaker
These games were organized at the initiative of the late PM Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951 and have been held once in 4 years ever since. Motto, Emblem and Torch of Asian games the AGF adopted ‘Ever Onward’ given by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the Motto of the Asian Games. The Emblem is a bright full rising Sun with interlocking rings. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s message to the participants of the first Asian Games “Play the game in the spirit of the game’.
Why it is called Olympics?
This is an international sports festival which originated in the city of Olympia, an ancient city of Greece, situated in the West Peloponnese.
Olympic Motto, Emblem Flag, Creed and Oath
Motto: “Citius, Altius, Fortius”. These are Latin words which mean ‘Swifter, Higher and Stronger’.
Emblem: The emblem is composed of 5 intertwined rings, each of a different color, representing 5 continents of the world placed at the centre of the Olympic Flag
|Color of Rings||Continent Represented|
Flag: The Olympic flag is white in color (originally made of cotton), 3 m x 2 m. the emblem placed in the middle is 206 cm × 60 cm.
Creed: The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.
Olympic Torch: The Olympic flame symbolizes the continuity between the ancient and the modern Olympics.
CUPS AND TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTS
• Air Racing: King’s Cup, Schneider Cup
• Archery: Federation Cup
• Athletics: Charminar Trophy, World Cup
• Badminton: Uber Cup, World Cup, Yonex Cup
• Chess: Naidu Trophy, Khaitan Trophy, Limca Trophy, World Cup, Corus Cup, Amber Cup
• Cricket: Ashes, Asia Cup, Champions Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Gillette Cup, Jawaharlal Nehru Cup, Ranji Trophy, Reliance Cup
• Football: European Cup, Federation Cup, Gold Cup, Lal Bahadur Shastri Trophy, Merdeka Cup, Santosh Trophy, Asia Cup, America Cup, Indira Gandhi Trophy, Rajiv Gandhi Trophy
• Golf: Prince of Wales Cup, Ryder Cup, Walker Cup, US Open, British Open
• Hockey: Agha Khan Cup, Azlan Shah Cup, Champions Trophy, Dhyanchand Trophy, Gurunanak Cup, Indira Gandhi Gold Cup, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan Cup, Lal Bahadur Shastri Cup, BMW Trophy, Nehru Trophy, Sanjay Gandhi Trophy, Wellington Cup, World Cup.
• Horse Racing: Derby
• Kabaddi: Federation Cup
• Kho-Kho: Federation Cup
• Tennis: Davis Cup, Federation Cup, Hamlet Cup, Mercedes Cup, Nation’s Cup, Wimbledon Trophy, U.S. Open, French Open, Australian Open, Hopman Cup
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India is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Country which is part of the Asian Continent. It has the mighty Himalayan Ranges to its North and is a peninsula Covered by Water bodies on the 3 sides. It attained its Independence from the British on 15th August 1947 and was a Republic on 26th January 1950. The Country comprises of 29 States and 7 Union Territories. New Delhi is the Capital of the Country with all the Governing body head quartered there. Mumbai is known as the Financial capital of the country.
1. Imran Khan was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is a leader of which Political Party?
2. The Startup India Yatra was launched in which state on July 30?
3. India’s first in-phone tourism guide and mobile application “Go whats That” has launched in which city?
4. Which Indian state has become the first one to implement biofuel policy?
5. The museum for all former Prime Ministers of India will be constructed in which city?
6. Which institution recently ruled that Assam-NRC Draft cannot be basis of any action?
7. Which Indian city, known as the walled city, has been proposed for UNESCO World Heritage tag?
8. Which state recently signed MoU to build its first Cow Sanctuary?
9. The Union government constituted which high-level committee to check mob lynching?
10. Name the Indians who won the 2018 Ramon Magsaysay Award?
11. Which city hosted the BRICS Summit 2018?
12. A massive underground lake has been detected for the first time on which planet?
13. India’s first state-run all-woman hotel will soon come up in which state?
14. Which country has decided to remove five zeroes from ailing currency?
15. RBI will soon issue new 100 Rupee notes with motif of which UNESCO World Heritage site?
16. Pawan Shah, who is in news recently, is associated with which sports?
17. Who is the author of the book “The Dhoni Touch: Unravelling the Enigma That Is Mahendra Singh Dhoni”?
18. Who has won the 2018 Formula 1 German Grand Prix tournament?
19. Which Indian personality has been crowned the Miss Asia (Deaf) 2018?
20. Which of the following is the official mascot for the 2020 Tokyo Paralympic Games?
According to the Indian Constitution a Government should always have Majority support in the Parliament to be in Power. A No Confidence Motion is passed if it is felt that the Government doesn’t hold majority. The Government has to then demonstrate its Majority on the floor. No Confidence Motion can be raised by any Member of the Parliament in the Lower House (Lok Sabha) with support of at least 50 MP’s.
Under such circumstances the Prime Minister has to prove his Majority in the House. Failing to which the Motion gets passed and the Council of Minister have to resign. The President then invites another person to prove Majority and form the Government.
Major part of my life had been spend on the benches of Mahesh Tutorials and the classrooms here have been more familiar to me than my own house.
The blackboards here and the projector screen in the classrooms are now more familiar to me than a Television.
The teachers and management team here have been my Academic Parents throughout my career.
MT - Mahesh Tutorials has nurtured me like "My Tutorials" and they have been always like a Guide by the side.
Thank You Milind Choksi Sir for admitting me at MT at my Std. X and Thank You Kavish Dawda Sir for helping me add a prefix to my Name - CA.
CA Mayuresh Wagh
AIR 47 CA FINAL MAY 2017
Wow! What an exciting journey it has been from Std. X to CA Final.
Having achieved great academic heights, throughout my journey, the only support for me had been my Modern Day Gurukul - "Mahesh Tutorials".
Spending a constant 8 years of my journey with MT, it had been almost a second home to me and the reward it gave me in the end was that I entered as just a student and exited as a Qualified Professional.
Will be indebted towards MT always.
Kudos to the Teachers and Management for all the efforts they have put in throughout my Career. Their approachable demeanor and constant support never failed to amaze me.
CA Shweta Tulsyan
AIR 26 CA FINAL MAY 2017
Loyalty is always rewarding. And my bond with MT is the best proof. Sitting on those MT benches from X grade till CA Final, my journey was made so smooth by MT. Right from the professors to the management to the office boys, everyone makes a contribution towards students' success at MT. The professors are like mentors, always available to guide and solve all the problems. MT has been a crucial part of my academic journey so far. Right from passing 10th with a 94% to getting 100/100 in accounts in 12th and then getting an All India Rank 23 in CA Final level, MT team along with CPLC has been besides me, guiding, encouraging, motivating and ensuring that I always fight a commendable battle.
Thanks a million to everyone at MT for making this possible.
CA Krunali Shah
AIR 23 CA FINAL MAY 2017
My journey in Mahesh Tutorial started from 9th standard. In standard 10 I secured 95.6% and I chose commerce as my career. I continued with Mahesh Tutorials because my earlier experience had been something very special. Here we don’t only study, but we have fun too. The teachers are so live wire and full of enthusiasm. They developed our interest in the subjects. They used to give us so many examples that you could connect easily and remember it effortlessly.
94.92% HSC Commerce 2017
Learning at Mahesh Tutorials was a two way communication process and helped me learn complex topics easily. We were told to do everything with applications. The teachers explained to us with the help of diagrams, presentations and illustrations helping us relate topics to the practical world. I believe this is what makes Mahesh Tutorials so great. My teachers at MT were always available to solve our doubts.
94.92% HSC Commerce 2017